SPSI : SPATIAL PETROPHYSICAL-SEISMIC INVERSION
Local Petrophysical equations can be transformed into Density and Velocity parameters.
These can be spatially distributed with the SPSI method on the the 3D Seismic Volume
together with other Related Petrophyscal Properties like Water Saturation or Resistivity.
This increases resolution and accuracy in the interpretation process.
DRho/Rho Baseline Model
Rho_be Model with Resistivity effect
PETROPHYSICAL INVERSION and PETROPHYSICAL-SEISMIC INTEGRATION
An innovative patented method to unify the Seismic and Petrophysical theory and a new step to
the implementation of a wide maximum resolution Static Model, positioning all Petrophysical Static and Dynamic
Properties on the 3D Seismic Volume.
DETERMINISTISCHE UND STOCHASTISCHE METHODE ZUR BERECHNUNG, VERBREITUNG UND INTERPRETATION
PETROPHYSIKALISCHER MIKRO-EIGENSCHAFTEN UND MAKRO-EIGENSCHAFTEN ALS PETROPHYSIKALISCH-SEISMISCHE ATTRIBUTE IM „3D SEISMIC VOLUME“ FÜR INTERPRETATIONSZWECKE.
Diese Erfindung beschreibt eine Methode zum Prozessing, zur Inversion und zur
Integration von seismischen und petrophysikalischen Daten. Diese Methode führt
zur Implementierung eines Modells für die seismische und petrophysikalische
Interpretation, um die geologischen Strukturen und die Physik der Gesteine
im Untergrund zu beschreiben. Sie ist eine Innovation für die Darstellung
petrophysikalischer Parameter und dessen Beziehungen zu seismischen Attributen
auf dem „3D Seismic Volume“.
Die Methode vereint Seismik und Petrophysik in einer einzigen Theorie.
INHOUSE SEISMIC INVERSION AND INTERPRETATION
Petrophysic-Consultants in Munich offers innovative SEISMIC INVERSION AND INTERPRETATION services.
This services are offered in Munich with modern professional software and scientific competence
" DEEP DIRECTIVITY SYSTEMS "
new patented technology for Deep Geothermal Systems, a key for the future of the renewable energy.
DDS is a new scientific innovation.
A method for the universal development of geothermal projects not only in
areas of high geothermal gradient, but in every part of the
DDS - " DEEP DIRECTIVITY SYSTEMS
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION WHICH CHANGES THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
PRODUCTION AND ENABLES NOVEL EFFICIENT APPLICATIONS USING OIL AND GAS
EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT.
these technologies, according to DDS concepts, it becomes possible to
circulate water within predefined flow lines, in continuous
flow and in a closed
system, for more than 100 kilometers, while keeping most of
or all the flow line
system below a predefined depth.
This depth could be, for example 3000 m and more, so that
the water flow is for
most of the flow path length in a formation, the temperature
of which is above
110 degrees Celsius, which is an ideal minimum temperature
the production of electrical power.”
(Deep Directivity Systems) is an innovation in the field of geothermal
exploration and production. It was originally presented a few months ago
by GeoNeurale as a technology to be operative developed by
Petrophysic-Consultants, but it appears that up to now few people really
enormous potential thereof for the deep geothermal and oil and gas
exploration and production.
DDS comprises a set of state of the art reservoir
development techniques adapted for use in deep geothermal energy
development projects. In other words, DDS comprises combinations of
existing technologies from the oil and gas exploration and production
field, which are transferred to the development
of deep geothermal energy projects, enabling boosting the flexibility and
efficiency of deep geothermal projects.
In this article, a few visionary example
applications are presented and DDS main technological aspects are
conceptually explained before the background of the state of the art of
technology used in deep geothermal projects.
The technology base for DDS (or: What are its roots and
first main technology basis of DDS is horizontal drilling, an application
that has been developed in the past to improve recovery in oil and gas
The first horizontal well was drilled in 1929 and at
that time the potential of this technology was not fully encompassed. At
present, it is possible to drill boreholes into the earth subsurface with
lengths greater than 12000 m using horizontal drilling technology.
Horizontal drilling creates a continuous borehole, and hence a regular
flow-line from the surface to the well shoe.
A second main technology basis of DDS comprises
reservoir stimulation techniques including hydraulic fracturing, suitably
adapted to make permeable the rock formations found at the typical depths,
ca. 3000 meters or more, of deep geothermal reservoirs.
DDS is a system of concepts using horizontal
drilling and hydraulic reservoir fracturing
for creating virtually indefinite lengths of downhole flow line connectivity.
The significance of DDS will be described together with a few examples of
the potential thereof.
Using these technologies, according to DDS concepts, it
possible to circulate water within
predefined flow lines, in continuous
flow and in a closed system, for more
than 100 kilometers, while keeping
most of or all the flow line system below
a predefined depth.
This depth could be, for example 3000 m
and more, so that the water flow
is for most of the flow path length in a
formation, the temperature of
which is above 110 degrees Celsius, which
is an ideal minimum
temperature level enabling the
production of electrical power.
What can DDS make possible?
a futuristic mind game to describe the potential of our DDS technology and
see the advantages which this could bring in the future.
Imagine that new drilling methods have become
available for drilling a well in a few, possibly only one day.
With such drilling efficiency (ROP) and using the
concepts of DDS technology, it would be possible to drill, within a few
years, a deep flow-line system connecting Europe to America and/or Europe
to China with flow lines running steadily
below 3000 m or more of depth and back to Europe to the same point, where
the hole was started to be drilled as an injection well (initial
In this way, it would be possible to create an
intercity system of geothermal power plants, deployed for instance along a
highway for supplying electricity-driven cars with electric energy.
This is only one example of how a deep geothermal
project could be indefinitely extended using DDS technology.
Between theory and technical realization, the
following challenging factors need to be solved resp. overcome:
1. Hydraulic pressure loss would be directly
proportional to the thermal efficiency and their ratio would need to be
2. In this respect, the positioning of downhole
pumps would be a critical issue.
The above is only an example of extreme (and
expensive) solutions that would require further technological innovations
to achieve faster drilling.
However the concept and technology of DDS systems
are available already now.
Smaller projects employing DDS technology at the city
scale are already
now an economically feasible and technically realistic solution
intercity geothermal power-plants having zero CO2
enough energy to supply the energy need of two small towns.
technology results from the scientific challenge of the firstly mentioned
author and from many years of study and experience in the oil and
geothermal exploration industry.
Bringing DDS technology to application will require
a comparable level of creativity based on an attitude of scientific
integrity and the integration of a specific scientific and technological
STATE OF THE ART IN GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION
to now, deep geothermal energy was mainly exploited using the following
- Hot Dry Rock (HDR) systems.
Hydrogeothermal systems are confined, however, to
corresponding to a relatively small part of the
earth surface. Their utility is therefore very limited.
Hydrogeothermal systems are mostly associated with
the presence of factured and karsted
carbonate formations, which are scarcely distributed. Moreover, the risk
of project failure in hydrothermal reservoirs is not negligible due to the
high costs of required efficient seismic investigations and the
uncertainty of geophysical methods to identify the presence of water
the water flow lines in deep formations.
In Hot Dry Rock (HDR) projects, water is circulated through an injection
well, the respective HDR formation and a production well, from which the
water is, after extraction of heat energy using heat exchangers at the
surface, re-injected into the injection well. In particular, the
water is pumped into the injection well and down to the shoe. Between the
shoe of the injection well and the shoe of the production well, a system
of natural fractures is required to provide a natural flow stream for the
water circulating from the injection well and the production well. Upon
flowing through the rock porosity / permeability system, the water is
heated due to its contact with the hot rock matrix/fluid interface and
transports the according heat energy to the surface.
Generally, the overall heath energy extraction at depth must be
compensated by the natural geothermal heat flow, which radiates
principally from the earth mantle outwards to the earth crust.
If a natural system of fractures does not exist or is inefficient to
provide the required flow rate in order to run the geothermal energy
extraction and production process, then an artificial fracture system must
be provided through downhole fracturing operations.
In the producer well, downhole pumps provide the flow, in order to pump
the hot water from the shoe to the surface. Proper downhole filters have
to be installed for sand and solid control.
The hot water flowing to the surface passes through a heat exchange
system,e.g. of a Kalina cycle or other type of power plant. At
temperatures, e.g. above 150 degree Celsius, the water will partially flow
in the vapor phase, which increases its concentration at increasing
comprises 3D seismic multi-component acquisition for the target
identification and drilling program planning, specific suites of LWD and
wireline petrophysical logs measurements for the construction of a static
geological structural and electrofacies model.
In reservoirs with temperatures around about 300 to 400 degree Celsius,
the flowing phase is only vapor. This vapor can directly flow through the
turbines of the power plant.
The water/vapor flowing out of the power plant is re-injected into the
thermal reservoir through the injection well and the circulation cycle
The difficulty of a HDR project is to manage and provide downhole an
essentially horizontal system of fractures which are hermetically confined
in order to avoid a dispersive flow.The flow directivity must be confined
from the injector to the producer well. If there is not a natural
reservoir directly providing high pressure steam and the necessary
permeability, then fracture or stimulation operations must be applied in
order to provide a suitable connectivity flow system in the geothermal
In a fracture stimulation operation, water is pressed at high pressure
cycles downhole and further injected through perforations in the well
casing into the surrounding reservoir rock formation in order to overcome
the minimum horizontal stress field (Sigma-3). This will generally produce
a fracture that is perpendicular to Sigma-3 and in the Sigma-1/Sigma-2
plane, i.e. in a sub-vertical fracture.
A difficult task in controlling a fracture process relates to the
difficulty of identifying with the required precision suitable
geomechanical parameters allowing determining the heterogeneity of the
matrix/porosity system and the direction of the closure stress.
If the fracture stimulation process is not properly planned and the
parameters influencing such process are not sufficiently determined in
detail, control on the fracture directivity, especially in the far-field
region with respect to the downhole center of the fracturing operation
water injection might be lost. As a consequence, in the production phase
the flow might not be focused in the desired direction and this might
strongly reduce the geothermal energy recovery at the producer well.
The artificial fracture system might also intercept natural fractures,
which might lead to water dispersive flow, fluid losses and system
In the absence of effective stress confinement, (barrier) layers above and
below the fracture horizon, the vertical fracture propagation might reach
permeable layers above with lower temperature or high permeability layers,
which in turn might lead to flow dispersion.
For running an efficient geothermal cycle, a flow rate of more than 100
liter/second at temperatures possibly above 110 degree Celsius are needed
to this aim, dispersive flow is a serious thread in geothermal production.
DDS SYSTEMS: A STEP AHEAD IN GEOTHERMAL SOLUTIONS
Deep Directivity Systems (DDS) can be defined as a
combination of (latest and/or future) drilling, directional drilling
control, reservoir stimulation,
fracture generation and well completion technologies.
The drilling technologies are for drilling multi-directional wells and/or
systems of mutually interconnected wells and/or well systems, which are
planned and directed to reach, from possibly only one or more spud points,
interconnect and optimally permeate a plurality of deep geothermal
reservoirs (formations) from which the geothermal energy will produced to
the possibly only one spud point at the earth surface, where sufficient
geothermal power is supplied from the plurality of reservoirs so that an
electric power plant can be operated continuously.
The directional drilling control technologies are for controlling the
complex subsurface path of the drill head. The reservoir stimulation and
new fracture generation technologies are for permeably connecting
respective large volumes of a deep geothermal reservoir formation to the
plurality of respective wells which permeate the reservoir formation.
The well completion technologies are for completing the casings which are
introduced into the wells and for providing in a casing wall the apertures
required to provide the water flow communication from the interior of the
respective well (injector) to the surrounding geothermal reservoir and
further another well (producer) penetrating the same reservoir, thus
closing a water flow loop for extracting geothermal energy from the
respective reservoir and comprising the respective injector well, said
reservoir and the respective producer well.
Having examined case studies of some failed geothermal projects, the DDS
concept has been invented and developed conceptually with the aim to
optimally control the flow directivity in the geothermal reservoir at the
maximum possible resolution scale and efficiently and hermetically close
and interconnect respective water flow circulation systems reaching one or
plural geothermal reservoirs, thereby avoiding dispersion by waterflooding.
A special workflow of reservoir characterization studies has been setup,
as a specific program for the planning and implementation of DDS projects.
One of the relevant advantageous features of DDS is that the water flow
circulation system can be designed, re-designed and extended such that the
energy conversion system provided at the earth surface can be adapted to
virtually any desired scale in terms of power and efficiency.
example, if initially a small scale project comprising a 2 Megawatt
electrical power plant unit has been realized, this project can be
virtually indefinitely extended, e.g. by adding new component units at the
earth surface location for increasing the total power to 10, 100 or
1000Megawatt and by developing new deep geothermal reservoirs and
flow-connecting these to the respective earth surface location.
Using the concepts of DDS, a deep geothermal project can be planned
conceptually as a predefinable, locally optimized, turn-key system, in
which the dimension and efficiency can be designed already in the
pre-planning phase, thereby reducing the uncertainty and project risk to a
Compared to hydrothermal projects, which are limited to only a few areas
in the world, and to Hot Dry Rock projects, which generally bear a
considerable risk, projects designed using DDS system concepts can be
realized in more than 95% of the earth's surface, which renders to such
projects the maximum possible design flexibility and a vast spectrum of
result, the novel DDS concept for designing deep geothermal projects will
bring increased project efficiency and lower risk with respect to any
other kind of geothermal projects.
The novel DDS concept invented by GeoNeurale represents a great evolution
in geothermal technology and in the renewable energy sector.
Angelo Piasentin (GeoNeurale, Munich/Germany)
Dr. Stephan Klauer (SK-Patent Law Office, Munich/Germany)
DEEP DIRECTIVITY SYSTEMS
Tel 089 8969 111 8 Fax 089 8969 111 7
new integrated reservoir characterization concept for geothermal reservoir
analysis is operative and was applied for the deep
geothermal project in Koenigsdorf.
Petrophysic-Consultants is the first
group in this sector to apply a full inhouse integrated petrophysical analysis to
evaluate the target area and support the seismic interpretation.